National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: Overview

Guardia Civil (Civil Guard)

Public security body charged with police duties. One of its branches is devoted to rescue and intervention in the mountains and other places of difficult access. Since 1981 it comprises the former ‘Skiers Unit’. Currently skiers are organized in the so-called ‘Grupos de Rescate Especial de Intervención en Montaña’ (Special Rescue Groups of Intervention in the Mountains [GREIM]). One of the missions of this branch is to guarantee public security in ski areas.

Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports)

The Ministry sets the conditions under which the professional card of ski instructor can be obtained and carries out the tests accordingly. 


Public/private institutions 

Cruz Roja (Red Cross) 

Humanitarian movement, part of the International Red Cross Organization. It provides help in case of accidents or emergencies.


Private institutions 

Real Federación Española Deportes de Invierno (Royal Spanish Federation of Winter Sports)

Private federation which assembles the regional federations related to winter sports and many stakeholders in this sphere. The RFEDI chooses which sportsmen will represent Spain in international competitions, and represents Spain before the International Ski Federation, among other things.

Asociación Española Ski-Man (Spanish Aeskiman Society)

This society is devoted to the promotion and protection of the so-called ski-man profession.

Asociación de Escuelas, Profesores y Entrenadores de Deportes de Invierno (Society of Schoold, Teachers and Trainers of Winter Sports)

It is basically devoted to the protection of the profession and prevention of professional intrusion, as well as guaranteeing teaching quality.

Escuela Española de Esquí & Snowof Sierra Nevada(Spanish School of Ski and Snowboard)

An example of a ski school located in Sierra Nevada, one of the most important ski resorts in Spain.

Reial Automòbil Club de Catalunya (Royal Car Club of Catalonia)

One of the most important private insurers in the region of Catalonia. It provides examples of available insurance cover. Other insurers providing such cover are Mapfre, FIATC Seguros, Europ Assistance, Axa, Intermundial, etc. Eroski, a popular publication aimed at consumers, provides an overview of ski accidents insurance.


National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

Asociación Turística de Estaciones de Esquí y Montaña (Tourist Society of Ski and Mountain Resorts [ATUDEM])

It brings together 31 ski and mountain stations or resorts in Spain. Such society has asked the Spanish Government to pass a regulatory framework on safety in winter sports and the rational use of sky areas.


Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Some information of accidents skiing or in the mountain can be found online. There is for instance information about accidents in Sierra Nevada in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013a.

Some education on sports in the mountain is provided by the Escuela Española de Alta Montaña (Spanish School of the High Mountain [EEAM]). This school is depending on the Federación Española de Deportes de Alta Montaña y Escalada (Spanish Federation of High Mountain and Alpinism Sports [FEDME]), which issues the so-called ‘federative licence’ (an identification card which also includes insurance cover).

Some statistical information on the intervention of the security forces in cases of accidents in the mountain can easily be found in the Wikipedia. There seems to be a lack of official, comprehensive statistics.